Center for Advanced Management

Links und Funktionen



Prof. Sadao Nagaoka (Hitotsubashi University)


  • Datum: 22.07.2009
    Zeit: 10:15-11:45
    Ort: Raum 202, Kaulbachstr. 45/2.OG

The R&D process in the US and Japan: Major findings from the RIETI-Georgia Tech inventor survey

This paper analyzes and compares the objective, the nature and the performance of R&D projects in the US and Japan, based on the first large scale systematic survey of inventors, focusing on the R&D projects yielding triadic patents. Major findings are the following. The projects for enhancing the existing business line of a firm account for a large share of R&D projects in both countries, confirming the view that the R&D investment is significantly conditioned by the existing complementary asset of a firm. Only about 20-30% of the projects are for process innovation in both countries. Product innovation generates process patents more often in Japan than in the US (25% vs. 10%), while product innovation projects are relatively more numerous in Japan. The two countries have surprisingly similar distributions of R&D projects in man month and the average team size. Man-months expended for an invention has a significant correlation with the performance of the R&D projects for existing business, less so for new business and not at all for those enhancing the technology base, suggesting substantial heterogeneity by project types in the determinants of the performance and in the uncertainty.


  • Datum: 29.07.2009
    Zeit: 10:15-11:45
    Ort: Raum 202, Kaulbachstr. 45/2.OG

Reforms of Patent Examination Request System in Japan: Some Lessons

The number of requests for patent examination showed a significant increase of 83% from 1997 to 2007 in Japan, while the number of patent applications increased by only 1%.  This paper aims at theoretically and empirically analyzing the causes of recent “explosion” of examination requests, focusing especially on (1) the introduction of multiple claim system (January 1, 1988), (2) the shortening of the period available for examination request from seven to three years (October 1, 2001) and (3) the revisions of examination request fee and annual fee (April 1, 2004). We test the following propositions which are derived from our newly developed theoretical model based on real option theory; (a) the increase in the average number of claims increases the value of applications and raises the rate of examination request; (b) the shorter period allowable for examination request increases the probability that the low-quality applications are requested for examination and the number of eventual patent grants; and (c) the reforms of examination request fee (upward revision) and renewal fee (downward revision) improve the average quality of applications which are requested for examination. Our empirical results support these propositions